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European dating system

The Slavic area was in all likelihood relatively small, perhaps centred in what is now southern Poland.

But in the 5th century Baltic-speaking area, however, contracted, and by the end of the 20th century Baltic languages were confined to Lithuania and Latvia.

The Indo-European character of Tocharian was announced by the German scholars Bedřich Hrozný published the first report of his own decipherment of the much more copious material that had meanwhile been found in the ruins of the Hittite capital itself.

The first full comparative grammar of the major Indo-European languages was Bopp’s (1861–62; “Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages”) were rendered obsolete by the major breakthrough of the 1870s, when scholars—prompted largely by the discoveries of a group of German scholars known as Neogrammarians—realized that sound correspondences are not merely rules of thumb that do not have to be strictly observed, but that apparent exceptions to sound laws can often be accounted for by stating them more accurately or by reconstructing additional different sounds in the parent language.

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The earliest Latin inscriptions apparently date from the 6th century Kuchean).In addition to the principal branches just listed, there are several poorly documented extinct languages of which enough is known to be sure that they were Indo-European and that they did not belong in any of the groups enumerated above (e.g., Phrygian, Macedonian).Of a few, too little is known to be sure whether they were Indo-European or not.Thus, the agreement of gives examples of typical vocabulary items widely shared within the Indo-European family that have been decisive in establishing the family.A blank indicates that the language in question does not use the item in accordance with the given meaning or that its word for that meaning is unknown. (The asterisk marks a form that is not actually found in any document or living dialect but is reconstructed as having once existed in the prehistory of the language.) The statable phonetic rules referred to earlier are not always obvious without careful observation.The difference between Gothic By comparing the recorded Indo-European languages, especially the most ancient ones, much of the parent language from which they are descended can be reconstructed.This reconstructed parent language is sometimes called simply Indo-European, but in this article the term Proto-Indo-European is preferred.(Rask included Celtic a few years later.) In 1822 the second edition of the first volume of ‘I persuaded’).In addition, Grimm tried to find the principle behind the correspondences of Germanic stop and spirant consonants (the first made with complete stoppage of the breath, and the second made with constriction of the breath but not complete stoppage) to the consonants of other Indo-European languages.Two years later there appeared the Rasmus Rask, completed in 1814.This work demonstrated methodically the relation of Germanic to Latin, Greek, Slavic, and Baltic.


  1. ECRIN is a public, non-profit organisation that links scientific partners and networks across Europe to facilitate multinational clinical research.

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